原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.366wap.com 翻译:geluman 转载请注明出处
论坛地址:http://www.366wap.com/bbs/thread-486337-1-1.html

11 facts you learned about US history that are false

你所了解的11个美国历史事实是错误的



Some things you've learned in school may havesince been proven false, and that is especially true when it comes to UShistory.Many say history is written by the winner, leaving much of the truthout. In recent years, historians and experts have been coming forward to revealthe true stories around some of America's biggest historical events.

一些你从学校所获知的东西已经被证实是错误的,尤其是当其涉及到美国历史时。很多人说由胜利者书写的历史遗漏了很多事实。近年来,历史学家和专家已经站出来披露一些有关美国最重大的历史事件的真实故事。

From the first Thanksgiving to the moon landing,here's everything your teacher may have gotten wrong about American history.

从第一个感恩节到登陆月球,以下是所有你的老师可能搞错的美国历史事件。

MYTH: Christopher Columbus discovered America.

谬论:克里斯托弗·哥伦布发现了美洲

TRUTH: As early as primary school, most of uslearned that Christopher Columbus discovered America, but that is not accurate.In fact, the Spanish explorer never even entered North America. On his fourtrips across the Atlantic, starting in 1492,Columbus explored the Caribbeanislands of the Bahamas and Cuba. He also couldn't have discovered America becauseNative Americans were already living there. In fact, Columbus is not even thefirst European to explore the Americas. That honor goes to the Norse explorerLeif Erikson who sailed to the Western Hemisphere over 400 years earlier. Thenwhy is Columbus such a notable figure in American history? It's most likelybecause he started a new age of exploration and his trips to the New World ledto colonization.

事实:早在小学时我们中的大部分人就得知克里斯托弗·哥伦布发现了美洲大陆,但这是不准确的。事实上,这名西班牙探险家从未踏上过北美大陆。自他于1492年开始的四次横渡大西洋的旅程当中,哥伦布探索了巴哈马和古巴的加勒比海诸岛。他也未能发现美洲,因为美洲土著早已经生活在这里。事实上,哥伦布甚至不是第一个探索美洲的欧洲人。这项荣誉属于挪威探险家列夫·埃里克森,早在400年前他就航行到过西半球,那么为什么在美国历史上哥伦布是一位如此值得一提的重要人物呢?最有可能的是因为他开启了一个新的探索时代并且他的新大陆之行导致了殖民。

MYTH: Christopher Columbus sailed on the Niña,Pinta, and Santa Maria.

谬论:克里斯托弗·哥伦布乘坐尼娜号、平塔号和圣玛利亚号航海



MYTH: The first Thanksgiving was a peaceful andjoyous meal shared between the Pilgrims and Native Americans.

谬论:第一个感恩节是清教徒与美洲土著共享的和平而愉快的一餐

TRUTH: In school, most were taught that thePilgrims came over on the Mayflower and sought help from the Native Americansto survive in the New World. In 1620, the two groups supposedly came togetherfor a three-day feast to celebrate their relationship and new lives together.But many historians say this was not the case. The two groups had a lot ofhostile feelings towards each other. The Pilgrims viewed Native Americans assavages, and stole their farmland. They also killed more than 90% of the nativepopulation with smallpox, brought over on the Mayflower. These hostile conditions,historians believe, did not lead to a celebratory first Thanksgiving. In fact,some say the Native Americans were not even invited to the feast.

事实:在学校里,大部分人被教导清教徒乘五月花号而来,为了在新世界生存下去而向美洲土著求助。据说这两个群体在1620年聚集在一起举行了三天的盛宴来庆祝他们的友谊和在一起的新生活。但很多历史学家说情况并非如此。这两个群体对彼此抱有很大敌意,清教徒认为美洲土著是野蛮的并偷窃他们的农田。还利用五月花号携带过来的天花病毒杀死了超过90%的土著人口。历史学家相信在这些敌对的条件下不会有首个庆祝性的感恩节,事实上,有些人称美洲土著甚至从未被邀请参加过盛宴。

MYTH: Witches were burned at the stake at theSalem witch trials.

谬论:在塞勒姆女巫审判中,女巫被烧死在火刑柱上



MYTH: George Washington had wooden teeth.

谬论:乔治·华盛顿有木牙

TRUTH: The first president of the United States,George Washington, did not, in fact, have wooden teeth. But he did have a lotof dental issues. The former war general wore dentures made of ivory, gold, andlead. But wood was never used in dentures and it was definitely not found inWashington's mouth. No one truly knows how or why this rumor started. Somehistorians say that the ivory may have been worn down, therefore having agrainy, wooden appearance, confusing early observers.

事实:美国第一任总统乔治·华盛顿实际上并没有木制牙齿,但他的确有很多牙齿上的问题,这位前战争时期的将军使用由象牙、金子和铅制成的假牙,但木头从未被用于假牙,而且可以肯定的是在华盛顿的口中没有发现假牙。没人真正地知道这个谣言是如何以及为什么开始的。一些历史学家称象牙可能已经被磨损了,因此具有颗粒状的木质外观,使很多早期观察者感到困惑。

MYTH: The Declaration of Independence was signedon July 4, 1776.

谬论:独立宣言签署于1776年7月4日

TRUTH: While many believe we are celebrating theDeclaration of Independence's signing on the Fourth of July, it was actuallysigned in August of 1776. The confusion lies in the fact that July 4 was theday the final edition of the document was agreed upon. It was the deadline theContinental Congress gave itself and wrote down, though it wouldn't be signedfor another month.

尽管很多人相信我们正在庆祝7月4日签署的独立宣言,但它实际上签署于1776年8月。混淆在于7月4日是文件最终版本取得一致意见的日子,这是大陆会议给自身规定并写下的最后期限,不过一个月后它才会被签署。

MYTH: Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.

谬论:托马斯·爱迪生发明了电灯泡



MYTH: Neil Armstrong said, "One small step forman, one giant leap for mankind," when he landed on the moon.

谬论:尼尔·阿姆斯特朗在登上月球后说过“这是人类的一小步,却是人类的一大步”

TRUTH: If you examine the famous line uttered byNeil Armstrong in 1969, you realize it doesn't really make sense. Because"man" and "mankind" essentially meant the same thing, ifhis famous line was accurate, what he basically said was, "that's onesmall step for mankind, one giant leap for mankind." Upon returning home,Armstrong clarified that he did say "one small step for a man," whichmakes much more sense. Peter Shann Ford, a computer programmer, said he foundproof that the missing "a" was actually just lost in transmissionback to Earth.

事实:如果你仔细检查尼尔·阿姆斯特朗在1969年说过的这句名言,你会意识到它实际上讲不通。因为"man"and "mankind"本质上是指的同一事物,如果他的名言是准确的,他基本上说的是“这是人类的一小步,却是人类的一大步”。回到地球后,阿姆斯特朗澄清他的确说过“一个人的一小步”,这样就讲得通了。一名叫做彼得·尚恩·福特计算机程序设计员称,他发现了证据证明缺少的“A”实际上在传输回地球的过程中丢失了。